Sabtu, 11 Juni 2011

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE

Present Perfect Continuous



FORM

[has/have + been + present participle]
Examples:
  • You have been waiting here for two hours.
  • Have you been waiting here for two hours?
  • You have not been waiting here for two hours.
Complete List of Present Perfect Continuous Forms

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now


We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.
Examples:
  • They have been talking for the last hour.
  • She has been working at that company for three years.
  • What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
  • James has been teaching at the university since June.
  • We have been waiting here for over two hours!
  • Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

USE 2 Recently, Lately


You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.
Examples:
  • Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
  • She has been watching too much television lately.
  • Have you been exercising lately?
  • Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
  • Lisa has not been practicing her English.
  • What have you been doing?

IMPORTANT

Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.
Examples:
  • Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct
  • Sam has had his car for two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You have only been waiting here for one hour.
  • Have you only been waiting here for one hour?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • Recently, John has been doing the work. Active
  • Recently, the work has been being done by John. Passive
NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is less commonly used in its passive form.

Verb Tense Exercise 7

Present Perfect / Present Perfect Continuous

Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses, then click the "Check" button to check your answers.
Robin: I think the waiter (forget) us. We (wait) here for over half an hour and nobody (take) our order yet.

Michele: I think you're right. He (walk) by us at least twenty times. He probably thinks we (order, already) .

Robin: Look at that couple over there, they (be, only) here for five or ten minutes and they already have their food.

Michele: He must realize we (order, not) yet! We (sit) here for over half an hour staring at him.

Robin: I don't know if he (notice, even) us. He (run) from table to table taking orders and serving food.

Michele: That's true, and he (look, not) in our direction once. 

Verb Tense Exercise 8

Present Perfect / Present Perfect Continuous

Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses, then click the "Check" button to check your answers.
1. Judy: How long (be) in Canada?
Claude: I (study) here for more than three years.

2. I (have) the same car for more than ten years. I'm thinking about buying a new one.

3. I (love) chocolate since I was a child. You might even call me a "chocoholic."

4. Matt and Sarah (have) some difficulties in their relationship lately, so they (go) to a marriage counselor. I hope they work everything out.

5. John (work) for the government since he graduated from Harvard University. Until recently, he (enjoy) his work, but now he is talking about retiring.

6. Lately, I (think) about changing my career because I (become) dissatisfied with the conditions at my company.

7. I (see) Judy for more than five years and during that time I (see) many changes in her personality. 

Verb Tense Exercise 9

Present Continuous / Present Perfect Continuous

Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses, then click the "Check" button to check your answers.
1. It (rain) all week. I hope it stops by Saturday because I want to go to the beach.

2. Sid: Where is Gary?
Sarah: He (study, at the library) for his German test on Wednesday. In fact, he (review) for the test every day for the last week.

3. You look really great! (You, exercise) at the fitness center ?

4. Frank, where have you been? We (wait) for you since 1 PM.

5. Tim: What is that sound?
Nancy: A car alarm (ring) somewhere down the street. It (drive) me crazy - I wish it would stop! It (ring) for more than twenty minutes.

6. Joseph's English (improve, really) , isn't it? He (watch) American television programs and (study) his grammar every day since he first arrived in San Diego. Soon he will be totally fluent.

7. Dan: You look a little tired. (You, get) enough sleep lately?
Michelle: Yes, I (sleep) relatively well. I just look tired because I (feel) a little sick for the last week.
Dan: I hope you feel better soon.
Michelle: Thanks. I (take, currently) some medicine, so I should feel better in a couple of days. 

Verb Tense Exercise 10

Present Continuous / Present Perfect Continuous

Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses, then click the "Check" button to check your answers.
Mr. Smith: So tell me a little bit about yourself, Mr. Harris. I would like to find out a little bit more about your background.

Mr. Harris: I (work) in the insurance industry for over ten years. I worked for Met Life for six years and World Insurance for four and a half. During that time, I heard many good things about Hollings Life Insurance and that's why I (apply) for the new sales position.

Mr. Smith: Tell me a little about your hobbies and interests.

Mr. Harris: In my spare time, I hike in the mountains outside of town, volunteer at the Sierra Club and play tennis. In fact, I (compete) in a tennis tournament this weekend.

Mr. Smith: Really, how long (you, play) tennis ?

Mr. Harris: I (play) since high school. I love the sport.

Mr. Smith: Great! We like dedication here at Hollings Life. You mentioned you volunteer at the Sierra Club. I (work, currently) with them on the sea turtle project. We (try) to create a wildlife sanctuary near the bay.

Mr. Harris: Do you know Frank Harris? He's my brother. He (work, presently) on the same project.

Mr. Smith: I know Frank quite well. Any brother of Frank's would be a welcome addition to Hollings Life. Just one more thing, we (look) for somebody who is fluent in Spanish; many of our clients are from Mexico.

Mr. Harris: No problem. I (study) Spanish since elementary school.

Mr. Smith: Sounds like you are the perfect candidate. 

Verb Tense Exercise 14

Present Perfect / Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous / Past Perfect Continuous

Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses, then click the "Check" button to check your answers.
1. It is already 9:30 PM and I (wait) here for over an hour. If John does not get here in the next five minutes, I am going to leave.

2. I was really angry at John yesterday. By the time he finally arrived, I (wait) for over an hour. I almost left without him.

3. Did you hear that Ben was fired last month? He (work) for that import company for more than ten years and he (work) in almost every department. Nobody knew the company like he did.

4. I (see) many pictures of the pyramids before I went to Egypt. Pictures of the monuments are very misleading. The pyramids are actually quite small.

5. Sarah (climb) the Matterhorn, (sail) around the world, and (go) on safari in Kenya. She is such an adventurous person.

6. Sarah (climb) the Matterhorn, (sail) around the world and (go) on safari in Kenya by the time she turned twenty-five. She (experience) more by that age than most people do in their entire lives.

7. When Melanie came into the office yesterday, her eyes were red and watery. I think she (cry)

Verb Tense Exercise 15

Present Continuous / Simple Past
Present Perfect Continuous / Past Perfect Continuous

Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses, then click the "Check" button to check your answers.
My English is really getting better. I (try) to learn the language since 1985, but only recently have I been able to make some real progress. By the time I started high school in 1988, I (study) the language for almost three years; however, I was only able to introduce myself and utter a few memorized sentences. For a couple more years, I (struggle) through grammar and vocabulary lessons, which made absolutely no difference. Nothing worked, so I decided to study abroad.

I found an exchange program in England that sounded like the perfect answer. I (stay) with a host family for one month. It was a huge disappointment! I (sit) there the whole time staring at the host mother and father hoping that there would be some breakthrough. Nothing.

When I returned, I mentioned to a friend that I (have) problems with the language for years. He recommended that I spend a year in an English speaking country. I decided to go abroad again. I (research) exchange programs for a couple of weeks and finally decided on a school in the United States.

Well, it worked. I (live) and (study) in the U.S. for more than two years. I (stay) here for at least another year before I return home. By then, I should be completely fluent. 

Verb Tense Exercise 16

Present and Past Tenses
and Non-Continuous Verbs

Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses, then click the "Check" button to check your answers.
1.
a. Look, I (have) two tickets for the circus.
b. Look, I (hold) two tickets for the circus.

2.
a. We (be) there for more than half an hour by the time the show began.
b. We (wait) there for more than half an hour by the time the show began.

3.
a. Sam (sit) in the seat next to me when the clown threw a bucket of water at me.
b. Sam (be) in the seat next to me when the clown threw a bucket of water at me.

4.
a. One clown was juggling while he (balance) a glass of wine on his head.
b. One clown was juggling while he (have) a glass of wine on his head.

5.
a. I (love) the circus ever since I was a child.
b. I (go) to the circus ever since I was a child.

6.
a. Right now, I (see) two elephants doing tricks in the ring.
b. Right now, I (look) at two elephants doing tricks in the ring. 

Verb Tense Final Test

Cumulative Verb Tense Review

Complete questions 1-10 below with the appropriate tenses, answer questions 11-15, then click the "Check" button to check your answers.
1. When Carol (call) last night, I (watch) my favorite show on television.

2. I (work) for this company for more than thirty years, and I intend to stay here until I retire!

3. Sharon (love) to travel. She (go) abroad almost every summer. Next year, she plans to go to Peru.

4. Thomas is an author. He (write) mystery novels and travel memoirs. He (write) since he was twenty-eight. Altogether, he (write) seven novels, three collections of short stories and a book of poetry.

5. We were late because we had some car problems. By the time we (get) to the train station, Susan (wait) for us for more than two hours.

6. Sam (try) to change a light bulb when he (slip) and (fell) .

7. Everyday I (wake) up at 6 o'clock, (eat) breakfast at 7 o'clock and (leave) for work at 8 o'clock. However, this morning I (get) up at 6:30, (skip) breakfast and (leave) for work late because I (forget) to set my alarm.

8. Right now, Jim (read) the newspaper and Kathy (make) dinner. Last night at this time, they (do) the same thing. She (cook) and he (read) the newspaper. Tomorrow at this time, they (do, also) the same thing. She (prepare) dinner and he (read) . They are very predictable people!

9. By this time next summer, you (complete) your studies and (find) a job. I, on the other hand, (accomplish, not) anything. I (study, still) and you (work) in some new high paying job.

10. The students (be, usually) taught by Mrs. Monty. However, this week they (be) taught by Mr. Tanzer.

* * * * * * * * * * * *

11.
Jane talks on the phone.
Bob has been talking on the phone for an hour.
Mary is talking on the phone.

Who is not necessarily on the phone now?

12.
I'm going to make dinner for Frank.
I'm making dinner for Judy.
I'll make dinner for Mary.
I make dinner for Ted.
I will be making dinner for Tony.

Who are you offering to make dinner for?

13.
Jane left when Tim arrived.
Bob left when Tim had arrived.
Tim arrived when Mary was leaving.
John had left when Tim arrived.
After Tim arrived, Frank left.

Who did not run into Tim?

14.
Jane is talking in class.
Bob always talks in class.
Mary is always talking in class.

Whose action bothers you?

15.
Jane never left Jamestown.
Bob has never left Jamestown.

Who is still alive?

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