Kamis, 21 April 2011

ACTIVE PARTICIPLE

participle

In grammatical analysis, a form of the verb. English has two forms. The present participle ends in -ing; for example, ‘working’ in ‘They are working’ (The verb's tense does not have to be present when the present participle is used, for example ‘they used to be working’). The past participle ends in -ed in regular verbs; for example, ‘trained’ in ‘They have been trained well’. In irregular verbs, the past participle has a special form, for example: drive/driven; light/lit; burn/burned/burnt.

Active & Passive Participle

Oleh Ari Julianto | Bahasa Inggris | 0 komentar | Dikunjungi 816 kali
Active Participle adalah bentuk Verb-ing yang memiliki fungsi sebagai berikut:
  1. Adjective (Menerangkan kata benda):
    • I saw the boat sinking . (I saw the boat which was sinking.)
    • I heard the girl singing . (I heard the girl who was singing)
  2. Menyatakan kejadian yang terjadi pada titik waktu yang sama.
    • Readi ng a magazine, I drink a cup of milk.
    • Playing a piano, my sister sings song.
  3. Menyatakan peristiwa yang terjadi berturut-turut:
    • Having had breakfast, he went out.
    • Having finished operating the computer, I Switched off it.
  4. Ada beberapa kata kerja yang diikuti oleh Active Participle:
    Catch, feel, hear, keep, leave, look at, notice, observe, see, smel, watch.
    • I feel something touching my ear.
    • I keep the baby sleeping.
    • I noticed them coming on time.
    • I smell something burning.
    • I saw the boys fighting.
Passive Participles adalah bentuk kata kerja ketiga yang memiliki fungsi untuk menyatakan sebab akibat :
  • She enters. She is accompanied by her mother.
    She enters accompanied by her mother.
  • He was aroused by the crash and leapt to his feet. Aroused by the crash, he leapt to his feet.
  • Because/As/Since the city is surrounded by the mountain, the city has a cool climate.
    Surrounded by mountain the city has a cool climate.
Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris yang mengandung unsur be (am, is, are, was, were, to be, being, been) dan Verb
Past Participle (VIII) adalah kalimat pasif (Passive Voice). Diterjemahkan menjadi di atau ter ………. 
Present Active Participle and Verbal Adjective
 
 
The Present Active Participle is used predicatively and remains unchanged, cf.:
  • Sentant l'adversaire faiblie, il en ont profité.
  • Feeling the adversary to become feeble, they have taken an advantage of this.
The Verbal Adjective (L'Adjectif Verbal) is used attributively and does agree in number and gender with the noun to which it refers, cf.:
  • C'était une nouvelle surprenante et très grave.
  • This was surprising and very bad news.
The Present Active Participle and the Verbal Adjective have usually one and the same form, but with a few exceptions; in this cases the Verbal Adjective ends in -ent or have a particular form (the verbs of -guer / -quer):
 
  Verb Present Active Participle Verbal Adjective
  adhérer to adhere adhérant adhérent, -e
  coïncider to coincide coïncidant coïncident, -e
  communiquer to communicate communiquant communicant, -e
  confluer to flow together confluant confluent, -e
  convaincre to convince convainquant convaincant, -e
  converger to converge convergeant convergent, -e
  déférer to defer déférant déférent, -e
  déterger to deterge détergeant détergent, -e
  différer to differ différant différent, -e
  divaguer to divagate divaguant divagant, -e
  diverger to diverge divergeant divergent, -e
  émerger to emerge émergeant émergent, -e
  équivaloir to be of equal value équivalant équivalent, -e
  exceller to excel excellant excellent, -e
  fatiguer to tire fatiguant fatigant, -e
  influer to flow into influant influent, -e
  intriguer to intrigue intriguant intrigant, -e
  naviguer to navigate naviguant navigant, -e
  négliger to neglect négligeant négligent, -e
  précéder to precede précédant précédent, -e
  provoquer to provoke provoquant provocant, -e
  résider to reside résidant résident, -e
  somnoler to be somnolent somnolant somnolent, -e
  suffoquer to suffocate suffoquant suffocant, -e
  vaquer to vacate vaquant vacant, -e
  zigzaguer to zigzag zigzaguant zigzagant, -e
The following forms are invariable:
  • soi-disant self-appealing;
  • battant neuf brandy new;
  • flambant neuf brandy new.
The perfect participle can be used instead of the present participle in sentences  like the one below (i.e. where one action is immediately followed by another with the same subject):

  • Tying one end of the rope to the wardrobe, Mike threw the other end out of thewindow  = Having tied one end of the rope to the wardrobe, Mike threw the other end out of the window.

The perfect participle emphasizes that the first action is complete before the second one starts, but is not normally necessary in combinations of this kind, except when the use of the present participle might lead to confusion.
  • Reading the instructions, he snatched up the fire extinguisher

The above sentence might give the impression that the two actions were simultaneous. Here, therefore, the perfect participle would be better:
  • Having read the instructions, he snatched up the fire extinguisher.

The perfect participle is, however, necessary when there is an interval of time between the two actions:
  • Having failed twice, he didn't want to try again.

It is also used when the first action covered a period of time:
  • Having been his own boss for such a long time, he found it hard to accept orders from another.
  •  
ACTIVE/PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
Active Participle
Active Participle yang biasa juga disebut Present Participle adalah kata kerja yang berbetuk seperti Gerund.
Active Participle digunakan sebagai:
A.      Noun Modifier (penjelas kata benda)
B.      Clause Modifier (Penjelas anak kalimat)

A.      Active Participle sebagai penjelas kata benda (noun modifier)
1.      Pola I               :V + Ing – Noun
Contoh             :
a.      A crying child came to me
b.      That singing bird is a ptarmigan
c.       The burning house are old
d.      The dying man spoke his last words
e.      The moving stone frightens us
Sebagaimana dijelaskan dalam contoh. Kata-kata kerja yang berakhiran –ing diatas menjelaskan kata benda dibelakangnya;
A crying child = anak kecil yang sedang menangis
2.      Pola II              : Noun – Participle Phrase
Contoh             :
a.      The bird singing in that tree is a magpie
b.      The officer standing on that ship is Captain Haddock
c.       The fat woman walking fast must beMrs. Tam
d.       The airliner flying high explodes
e.       Something crawling across my foot was a cobra
Kata-kata yang dicetak miring adalah Participle Phrase. Dengan demikian kata-kata yang dicetak miring itulah yang menjelaskan kata benda di depannya. The bird singing = The bird that is /was singing = burung yang sedang berkicau.
B.      Active participle sebagai clause modifier
Active participle sebagai clause modifier mempunyai 3 arti/makna:
1.Menjelaskan 2 kejadian/kegiatan yang terjadi bersamaan.
Contoh: - shouting, he kicked the door
                 (= while he was shouting, he kicked the door)
2.Menyatakan “sebab atau alasan”
   Contoh: - Being old, Mr. Umar has to wear glasses
                    (= Because Mr. Umar is old, he has to wear glasses)
3.Menyatakan 2 kegiatan yang terjadi secara berurutan
    Contoh: - Having studied hard, i take a rest
                    (= After I have studied hard, I take a rest)

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